Dangerous Borders: A Journey across India & Pakistan - Netflix

Journalists and presenting talent Adnan Sarwar and Babita Sharma travel either side of the contentious Indo-Pakistan border.

From Gujarat and Sindh to the volatile and fiercely-contested Kashmir and Northern Territories, they cross landscapes of extraordinary variety and often staggering beauty.

On their journey the pair discover enduring traditions, surprising religious diversity and unexpected flashes of modernity in the countries of their respective parents' birth. The shadow of Partition hangs over both, but where do these two mighty nations stand in the 21st century?

Dangerous Borders: A Journey across India & Pakistan - Netflix

Type: Documentary

Languages: English

Status: Running

Runtime: 60 minutes

Premier: 2017-08-14

Dangerous Borders: A Journey across India & Pakistan - History of Pakistan - Netflix

The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan. For over three millennia, the region has witnessed human activity and one of the world's major civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilisation. The trade routes which traverse the Indus Valley linking Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent and the Orient have attracted people from as far as Greece and Mongolia and several imperial powers, the last being the British Empire.

Dangerous Borders: A Journey across India & Pakistan - Delhi Sultanate - Netflix

In 1160, Muhammad Ghori, a Turkic ruler, conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids and became its governor in 1173. He for the first time named Sindh Tambade Gatar roughly translated as the red passage. He marched eastwards into the remaining Ghaznavid territory and Gujarat in the 1180s, but was rebuffed by Gujarat's Hindu Chaulukya (Solanki) rulers. In 1186–87, he conquered Lahore, bringing the last of Ghaznevid territory under his control and ending the Ghaznavid empire. Muhammad Ghori's successors established the Delhi Sultanate. The Turkic origin Mamluk Dynasty, (mamluk means “owned” and referred to the Turkic youths bought and trained as soldiers who became rulers throughout the Islamic world), seized the throne of the Sultanate in 1211. Several Central Asian Turkic and a Lodhi Pashtun dynasty ruled their empires from Delhi: the Mamluk (1211–90), the Khalji (1290–1320), the Tughlaq (1320–1413), the Sayyid (1414–1451) and the Lodhi (1451–1526). Although some kingdoms remained independent of Delhi – in Gujarat, Malwa (central India), Bengal and Deccan – almost all of the Indus plain came under the rule of these large sultanates. The sultans (emperors) of Delhi enjoyed cordial relations with rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. While the sultans ruled from urban centers, their military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for many towns that sprang up in the countryside. Close interaction with local populations led to cultural exchange and the resulting “Indo-Islamic” fusion has left a lasting imprint and legacy in South Asian architecture, music, literature, life style and religious customs. In addition, the language of Urdu (literally meaning “horde” or “camp” in various Turkic dialects, but more likely “city” in the South Asian context) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period, as a result of the mingling of speakers of native Prakrits, Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating South Asia from the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the 13th century; nonetheless the sultans eventually lost Afghanistan and western Pakistan to the Mongols (see the Ilkhanate dynasty). The Sultanate declined after the invasion of Emperor Timur, who founded the Timurid Empire, and was eventually conquered in 1526 by the Mughal Emperor Babar. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire attracted Muslim refugees, nobles, technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, artisans, teachers, poets, artists, theologians and Sufis from the rest of the Muslim world and they migrated and settled in the South Asia. During the reign of Sultan Ghyasuddin Balban (1266–1286) thousands of Central Asian Muslims sought asylum including more than 15 sovereigns and their nobles due to the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran. At the court of Sultan Iltemish in Delhi the first wave of these Muslim refugees escaping from the Central Asian genocide by the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan, brought administrators from Iran, painters from China, theologians from Samarkand, Nishapur and Bukhara, divines and saints from the rest of Muslim world, craftsmen and men and maidens from every region, notably doctors adept in Greek medicine and philosophers from everywhere.

Dangerous Borders: A Journey across India & Pakistan - References - Netflix